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Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2019;32(3):162-172. doi: 10.1159/000499433. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Side Effects of Frequently Used Antihypertensive Drugs on Wound Healing in vitro.

Author information

1
Institute for Translational Wound Research, Centre for Biomedical Education and Research (ZBAF), Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany, ewa.stuermer@uni-wh.de.
2
Institute for Translational Wound Research, Centre for Biomedical Education and Research (ZBAF), Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany.
3
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Centre for Biomedical Education and Research (ZBAF), Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The number of patients who has a daily intake of antihypertensive drugs is rising, due to an also rising prevalence of lifestyle diseases. Interestingly, knowledge about effects of these drugs in terms of wound healing is low.

OBJECTIVE:

Based on a few differing studies, the idea arose that antihypertensives may have side effects on wound healing.

METHODS:

Five antihypertensive drugs from different substance classes (metoprolol, amlodipine, ramipril, hydrochlorothiazide, candesartan) were investigated, in terms of possible impacts on cell metabolism and migration of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Additionally, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in a 3-dimensional (3D) wound model addressing the influence on regeneration processes, such as cell migration, metabolic activity, apoptosis and epidermal thickness.

RESULTS:

Hydrochlorothiazide and ramipril exerted inhibiting effects in nearly all analyses, interestingly, in serum equivalent doses. In contrast, candesartan and amlodipine induced slight positive effects in 2D as well as in 3D models. The previously described positive effects of β-blockers could only partially be confirmed by metoprolol. Antihypertensive drugs affected fibroblasts more than keratinocytes - whether positively or negatively.

CONCLUSION:

Antihypertensive drugs have an influence on keratinocytes and fibroblasts; they are not neutral. Candesartan has the most positive effects on skin cells. For angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and thiazide diuretics, wound healing in a 3D model is delayed. β-Receptor blockers seem to improve wound healing to a small extent just like calcium channel blockers. These results should be evaluated in a clinical trial to verify their clinical relevance.

KEYWORDS:

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; Diuretics; In vitro 3-dimensional skin model; Wound healing; β-Blocker

PMID:
31018213
DOI:
10.1159/000499433

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