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Mol Nutr Food Res. 2019 May;63(10):e1801413. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201801413. Epub 2019 May 3.

Cocoa Shell Aqueous Phenolic Extract Preserves Mitochondrial Function and Insulin Sensitivity by Attenuating Inflammation between Macrophages and Adipocytes In Vitro.

Author information

1
Institute of Food Science Research, CIAL (UAM-CSIC), 28049, Madrid, Spain.
2
Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid, Spain.
3
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, 61801, USA.
4
College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China.

Abstract

SCOPE:

The aim is to assess the action of an aqueous extract from cocoa shell (CAE) and its main phenolic compounds to prevent the loss of obesity-induced mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, targeting inflammation between macrophages-adipocytes in vitro.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

CAE (31-500 µg mL-1 ) inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocytes lipid accumulation and induces browning during differentiation. LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages show reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and lowered pro-inflammatory cytokine production when treated with CAE and pure phenolics. Inflammatory crosstalk created by stimulating adipocytes with macrophage-conditioned media (CM) is arrested; CAE diminishes tumor necrosis factor-α (67%) and promotes adiponectin secretion (12.3-fold). Mitochondrial function, measured by reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial content, and activity, is preserved in CM-treated adipocytes through up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α expression. Increases in insulin receptor (9-fold), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (3-fold), protein kinase B (4-fold) phosphorylation, and a decrease in insulin receptor substrate 1 serine phosphorylation induce increased glucose uptake (34%) and glucose transporter 4 translocation (14-fold) in CM-induced adipocytes.

CONCLUSION:

CAE phenolics promote a beige phenotype in adipocytes. Macrophages-adipocytes inflammatory interaction is reduced preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. For the first time, CAE shows a positive effect on adipogenesis and inflammation-related disorders.

KEYWORDS:

cocoa shell; inflammation; insulin resistance; mitochondrial dysfunction; phenolic compounds

PMID:
31018035
DOI:
10.1002/mnfr.201801413

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