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Nat Commun. 2019 Apr 23;10(1):1912. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-09565-4.

Towards super-clean graphene.

Lin L1, Zhang J1,2, Su H3, Li J2,4,5, Sun L1,2, Wang Z6, Xu F7, Liu C7, Lopatin S8, Zhu Y9, Jia K1, Chen S10, Rui D4, Sun J11,12, Xue R13, Gao P14, Kang N4, Han Y9, Xu HQ4, Cao Y3, Novoselov KS6, Tian Z3, Ren B3, Peng H15,16, Liu Z17,18.

Author information

1
Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing Science and Engineering Center for Nanocarbons, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, P. R. China.
2
Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.
3
Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (iChEM), State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and The MOE Key Laboratory of Spectrochemical Analysis and Instrumentation, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, 361005, Xiamen, China.
4
Beijing Key Laboratory of Quantum Devices, Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, P. R. China.
5
China Fortune Land Development Industrial Investment Co., Ltd Beijing, Beijing, China.
6
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.
7
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.
8
Imaging and Characterization Core Lab, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
9
Physical Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
10
Electron Microscopy Laboratory, and International Center for Quantum Materials, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, P. R. China.
11
Soochow Institute for Energy and Materials InnovationS (SIEMIS), College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006, China.
12
Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Advanced Carbon Materials and Wearable Energy Technologies, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006, China.
13
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR, 999077, China.
14
Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing, 100871, China.
15
Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing Science and Engineering Center for Nanocarbons, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, P. R. China. hlpeng@pku.edu.cn.
16
Beijing Graphene Institute, Beijing, 100095, P. R. China. hlpeng@pku.edu.cn.
17
Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing Science and Engineering Center for Nanocarbons, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, P. R. China. zfliu@pku.edu.cn.
18
Beijing Graphene Institute, Beijing, 100095, P. R. China. zfliu@pku.edu.cn.

Abstract

Impurities produced during the synthesis process of a material pose detrimental impacts upon the intrinsic properties and device performances of the as-obtained product. This effect is especially pronounced in graphene, where surface contamination has long been a critical, unresolved issue, given graphene's two-dimensionality. Here we report the origins of surface contamination of graphene, which is primarily rooted in chemical vapour deposition production at elevated temperatures, rather than during transfer and storage. In turn, we demonstrate a design of Cu substrate architecture towards the scalable production of super-clean graphene (>99% clean regions). The readily available, super-clean graphene sheets contribute to an enhancement in the optical transparency and thermal conductivity, an exceptionally lower-level of electrical contact resistance and intrinsically hydrophilic nature. This work not only opens up frontiers for graphene growth but also provides exciting opportunities for the utilization of as-obtained super-clean graphene films for advanced applications.

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