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Sci Rep. 2019 Apr 23;9(1):6380. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-42859-7.

Skipping breakfast is associated with adiposity markers especially when sleep time is adequate in adolescents.

Author information

1
YCARE (Youth/Child cArdiovascular Risk and Evironmental) Research Group, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. elsie@usp.br.
2
YCARE (Youth/Child cArdiovascular Risk and Evironmental) Research Group, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
3
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.
5
ImFINE Research Group. Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport-INEF, Technical University of Madrid, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición(CIBEROBN), Madrid, Spain.
6
Institut für Ernährungs-und Lebensmittelwissenschaften-Humanernährung, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms, Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
7
Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
8
Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Unit, University of Crete School of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
9
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics-Research Center for Food and Nutrition, Rome, Italy.
10
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
11
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Zaragoza,, Instituto Agroalimentário de Aragón (IA2), Zaragoza, Spain.
12
Department of Preventive Medicine - Visiting Professor, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
13
Insttituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Zaragoza, Spain.

Abstract

Adolescence is a critical stage of development and has an important influence on energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs). When adolescents are associated with obesity it can lead to increased cardiometabolic risk. Here we assess if EBRBs adopted by adolescents included in a subsample are associated with markers of total and abdominal adiposity in a multicentre European study, Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA-CSS) and a Brazilian study, Brazilian Cardiovascular Adolescent Health (BRACAH study), and whether sleep duration influence the association between skipping breakfast, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, with total and abdominal obesity (AO). Multilevel linear regression models using fixed and random intercepts were used to analyse the association between markers of obesity and EBRBs. Skipping breakfast was the prevalent behaviour in association with obesity among European and Brazilian boys besides European girls, even after stratification by sleep time. Moreover, European boys who slept properly and skipped breakfast had an increased waist circumference (WC), while body mass index (BMI) increased in Brazilian boys. Among Brazilian boys less sleep was protective for total obesity (β = -0.93 kg/m2; 95% CI: -1.80; -0.07). European girls when they were more sedentary, showed an increase in WC, especially for those who reported they slept adequately. Skipping breakfast was associated with total and AO in adolescents independent of sleep duration.

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