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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Jun 24;63(7). pii: e00355-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00355-19. Print 2019 Jul.

The Microbiology of Bloodstream Infection: 20-Year Trends from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

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University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA.
University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.


Bloodstream infection (BSI) organisms were consecutively collected from >200 medical centers in 45 nations between 1997 and 2016. Species identification and susceptibility testing followed Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methods at a central laboratory. Clinical data and isolates from 264,901 BSI episodes were collected. The most common pathogen overall was Staphylococcus aureus (20.7%), followed by Escherichia coli (20.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.3%), and Enterococcus faecalis (5.2%). S. aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen overall in the 1997-to-2004 period, but E. coli was the most common after 2005. Pathogen frequency varied by geographic region, hospital-onset or community-onset status, and patient age. The prevalence of S. aureus isolates resistant to oxacillin (ORSA) increased until 2005 to 2008 and then declined among hospital-onset and community-acquired BSI in all regions. The prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) was stable after 2012 (16.4% overall). Daptomycin resistance among S. aureus and enterococci (DRE) remained rare (<0.1%). In contrast, the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae increased from 6.2% in 1997 to 2000 to 15.8% in 2013 to 2016. MDR rates were highest among nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), and colistin was the only agent with predictable activity against Acinetobacter baumannii-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex (97% susceptible). In conclusion, S. aureus and E. coli were the predominant causes of BSI worldwide during this 20-year surveillance period. Important resistant phenotypes among Gram-positive pathogens (MRSA, VRE, or DRE) were stable or declining, whereas the prevalence of MDR-GNB increased continuously during the monitored period. MDR-GNB represent the greatest therapeutic challenge among common bacterial BSI pathogens.


antimicrobial resistance; bloodstream infection; surveillance

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