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J Environ Manage. 2019 Jul 1;241:293-304. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.03.059. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

The value of manure - Manure as co-product in life cycle assessment.

Author information

1
European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, VA, Italy. Electronic address: adrian.leip@ec.europa.eu.
2
Farm Systems & Environment Group, AgResearch, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton, New Zealand.
3
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Animal Production and Health Division, Rome, Italy; Animal Production Systems Group, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box 338, 6700 AH,, Wageningen, the Netherlands; Teagasc - Crops, Environment and Land Use Programme, Johnstown Castle, Wexford, Y35 Y521, Ireland.
4
Environmental Impacts and Water Management in Livestock, Embrapa Southeast Livestock, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.
5
I.S.Environment, UK.
6
Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB), Germany and University of Zielona Góra, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Engineering, Poland.
7
Evonik Nutrition&Care GmbH, Germany.
8
University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, LEAF, Lisboa, Portugal.
9
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Animal Production and Health Division, Rome, Italy.
10
Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China; Key Laboratory of Energy Conservation and Waste Treatment of Agricultural Structures, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 100081, China.
11
The University of Manchester, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, UK.
12
Natural Resources Institute Finland, Unit of Bioeconomy and Environment, Helsinki, Finland.
13
Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Vienna, Austria.
14
The Pennsylvania State University, USA.
15
University of Nebraska - Lincoln, USA.
16
School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, PR China.
17
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nkolbisson, Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon.
18
ARC-Institute for Soil, Climate and Water, South Africa; Dept of Agriculture and Animal Health, UNISA, South Africa; IFA-Yangambi, Dem. Rep. Congo.
19
West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition, Kolkata, India.
20
Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Australia.
21
Lancaster University, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, UK.
22
School of Water, Energy & Environment, Cranfield University, United Kingdom.
23
Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas, USA.
24
UMR SAS, INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, 35000 Rennes, France.
25
Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy, USA.

Abstract

Livestock production is important for food security, nutrition, and landscape maintenance, but it is associated with several environmental impacts. To assess the risk and benefits arising from livestock production, transparent and robust indicators are required, such as those offered by life cycle assessment. A central question in such approaches is how environmental burden is allocated to livestock products and to manure that is re-used for agricultural production. To incentivize sustainable use of manure, it should be considered as a co-product as long as it is not disposed of, or wasted, or applied in excess of crop nutrient needs, in which case it should be treated as a waste. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to define nutrient requirements based on nutrient response curves to economic and physical optima and a pragmatic approach based on crop nutrient yield adjusted for nutrient losses to atmosphere and water. Allocation of environmental burden to manure and other livestock products is then based on the nutrient value from manure for crop production using the price of fertilizer nutrients. We illustrate and discuss the proposed method with two case studies.

KEYWORDS:

Allocation; Fertilizer; Life cycle assessment; Livestock supply chains; Manure; Nutrients

PMID:
31009817
DOI:
10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.03.059
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