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Perspect Clin Res. 2019 Apr-Jun;10(2):91-94. doi: 10.4103/picr.PICR_35_19.

Study designs: Part 3 - Analytical observational studies.

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Department of Anaesthesiology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Director, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.


In analytical observational studies, researchers try to establish an association between exposure(s) and outcome(s). Depending on the direction of enquiry, these studies can be directed forwards (cohort studies) or backwards (case-control studies). In this article, we examine the key features of these two types of studies.


Case–control study; cohort study; epidemiologic methods

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