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J Cardiovasc Echogr. 2019 Jan-Mar;29(1):7-13. doi: 10.4103/jcecho.jcecho_58_18.

Stepwise Protocols for Scoring of Mitral Valve using Three-Dimensional Transthoracic Echocardiography in Mitral Stenosis.

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Department of Cardiology, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.



This study aims to propose protocols that enable scoring of mitral valve (MV) in mitral stenosis using the three-dimensional (3D) scoring system.


A two-staged study was conducted. The first stage was designed to select the best 3D images of MV leaflets and chordae through analysis of 471 images. The second stage was designed to organize the best 3D images into protocols for complete scoring of MV. It included 35 consecutive patients; 23 had sinus rhythm (SR) and 12 had atrial fibrillation (AF). Both single- and multi-beat 3D acquisition from apical and parasternal windows were focused on MV leaflets and chordae using all 3D modalities (live, zoom, and full volume). To propose the protocols, 1563 images were analyzed.


In SR with good apical window, 2 protocols were recommended for complete scoring of leaflets and chordae (4 zoom 3D images [1 image for leaflets and 3 images for chordae] and 1 full-volume 3D image) using single- and multi-beat acquisition. In AF, the same 2 protocols using single-beat acquisition were recommended. From parasternal window, complete scoring of leaflets was obtained by 3 recommended protocols (single- or multi-beat zoom 3D images from parasternal short axis [PSAX], multibeat live 3D images from PSAX, and single- or multi-beat full-volume 3D images from parasternal long axis) in SR and 1 protocol in AF (single-beat zoom 3D images from PSAX). Scoring of chordae was incomplete in all patients by all 3D modalities.


The proposed 3D-transthoracic echocardiography protocols suit all patients regardless of echo window and heart rhythm and enabled complete MV scoring.


Mitral stenosis; mitral valve score; real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

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