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Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 May;67(5):659-663. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1187_18.

Computed tomography imaging-based normative orbital measurement in Indian population.

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Department of Radio-diagnosis, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.



This study aims to evaluate normal orbital structures with nonenhanced computed tomography (NCCT) and determine normative data for the Indian population.


CT images of the orbits of 100 patients were retrospectively reviewed on a work station to record the normative data of the orbits. Clinical details of all patients were reviewed to ensure that they did not have ocular/orbital diseases. Both axial and coronal images were utilized to record the data.


The mean age of the population evaluated was 34.07 years, with male to female ratio of 1.77. The average orbital index for the left orbit was 97 and for the right side was 103. The mean thickness of left inferior rectus, lateral rectus, medial rectus, and the superior rectus was 3.36 mm, 3.14 mm, 3.80 mm, and 3.75 mm, respectively. The right inferior rectus, lateral rectus, medial rectus, and the superior rectus measured 3.46 mm, 3.14 mm, 3.83 mm, and 3.78 mm, respectively. The optic nerve sheath complex diameter varied between 3.05 mm and 7.17 mm for the left eye and 3.05 mm and 7.0 mm for the right eye.


The study provides normative data on various orbital structures in an Indian population. This data is likely to be useful for diagnosing various orbital pathologies and in planning surgical orbital procedures.


CT; extraocular muscles; normative data; optic nerve; orbit

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