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Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jul 15;674:159-170. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.029. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Organochlorine pesticides in the soils from Benevento provincial territory, southern Italy: Spatial distribution, air-soil exchange, and implications for environmental health.

Author information

1
Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Earth Surface System and Environmental Carrying Capacity, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China; Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Resources, University of Naples Federico II, Naples 80125, Italy.
2
Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Resources, University of Naples Federico II, Naples 80125, Italy. Electronic address: stefano.albanese@unina.it.
3
National Engineering Research Center for Marine Aquaculture, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China. Electronic address: lijiji@zjou.edu.cn.
4
Department of Science and Technologies, University of Sannio, Benevento 82100, Italy.
5
Pacific Rim Laboratories Inc., Surrey, BC, Canada.
6
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, Portici 80055, Italy.
7
Auckland Emergency Management, Auckland Council, Auckland 1010, New Zealand.
8
Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Resources, University of Naples Federico II, Naples 80125, Italy.
9
Pegaso University, Naples 80132, Italy; Norwest Italia Srl, Naples 80138, Italy.

Abstract

This study comprehensively interprets the contamination status of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils from Benevento provincial territory, southern Italy, and its implications for environmental health by means of a systematic grid sampling method and geostatistics. The total concentrations of OCPs in the soils ranged from 0.058 to 16.9 ng/g, with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.72 ng/g and an arithmetic mean (AM) of 1.71 ng/g. The levels of OCPs were dominated by p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, HCB, contributing together to 73.5% of the total OCPs. The higher levels of HCB, DDTs, and HCHs found in southwestern, central and east Benevento provincial territory, all occurring adjacent to landfill sites. The residues of OCPs in soil are largely ascribed to their historical use. The OCP inventories in soils of Benevento provincial territory ranged from 0.13 to 4.84 metric tons, with GM = 0.42 metric tons and AM = 0.44 metric tons. The soil is likely to be a sink for DDTs under the influence of regional air transport from pollution hotspots and has the potential to release other chemicals with a high vapor pressure, e.g., HCB, HCHs, and α-Endosulfan. And the mean level of the air-soil exchange flux of HCB, HCHs, and DDTs is estimated to be -1.59, -0.72, and 0.10 ng/m2/day respectively. The potential ecological and human health risks caused by OCPs in the soils are deemed essentially negligible in Benevento provincial territory.

KEYWORDS:

Mass inventory; Organochlorine pesticides; Risk assessment; Soils; Spatial distribution

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