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Ayu. 2018 Jul-Sep;39(3):159-164. doi: 10.4103/ayu.AYU_59_18.

Comparative pharmacognostical analysis through quantitative micrometry and analytical study on Mridu and Tikshna Apamarga Kshara.

Author information

Department of Shalya Tantra, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.
Department of Pharmacognosy Laboratory, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.



Kshara is derived from the word "Ksharana" that means as something that mobilizes and removes the deformed flesh, skin, tissue, etc., due to its corrosive nature (Ksharanata). Pratisarniya Kshara has been further classified into three types on the basis of its potency - Mridu (mild), Madhyama (moderate) and Tikshna (strong). This study aims at comparison between (Mridu and Tikshna) Apamarga Kshara on the basis of pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical evaluation.

Materials and Methods:

Apamarga Panchanga (whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn.) was collected, and authentication was done by the expert. Mridu Apamarga Kshara (MAK) and Tikshna Apamarga Kshara (TAK) were prepared as proposed by Sushruta Samhita. Pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical analyses were carried out according to standard protocol.

Observation and Results:

Both the Kshara showed their own peculiar crystal system and analytical findings showed higher pH value (10.65) and calcium content (6.1%) in TAK as compared to MAK.


Quantitative micrometric microscopy showed more amount of crystals in TAK (13/mm2) than MAK (6/mm2), which may be due to Kapardika and Chitrakamoola (roots of Plumbago zeylenica Linn.). pH of MAK and TAK was 10.2 and 10.65, respectively. This result showed that TAK is more alkaline, which may be also due to Kapardika and Chitrakamoola.


Sodium and potassium ion concentration was higher in MAK (Na+ = 26%, K+ = 45%) as compared to TAK (Na+ = 12.6%, K+ = 32.5%). Calcium ion estimation was lower (2.31%) in MAK and higher (6.1%) in TAK. These findings can be further used for the standardization purpose of Tikshna Kshara which may enrich the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.


Achyranthes aspera Linn; Apamarga Kshara; Mridu Kshara; Tikshna Kshara; quantimetric

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