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Indian J Urol. 2019 Apr-Jun;35(2):129-133. doi: 10.4103/iju.IJU_193_18.

Linguistic and cultural validation of Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire in Hindi.

Author information

Department of Urology, SMSMC and Associated Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK.



In the year 2003, Joshi et al. developed a validated outcome assessment tool to measure the ureteral stent-related symptoms. The original English language Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ) has been validated in various languages worldwide. Our objective was to develop the USSQ in Hindi, a commonlyused language in India, by validating it in patients undergoing ureteroscopic lithotripsy.

Materials and Methods:

A final Hindi version of the USSQ was derived from the original English version to apply to the study population by translation, back translation, and face-to-face interviews. The Hindi and English versions were completed by 70 patients undergoing ureteroscopic lithotripsy with stent in situ, on postoperative days 7 and 8, and 4 weeks after stent removal. Similarly, discriminant validity was checked among 50 healthy individuals. A detailed statistical analysis was used to correlate results (Cronbach's α coefficient, Spearman's correlation, and Mann-Whitney U-test).


A total of 70 patients were enrolled in the study and 61 completed the final assessment. The median age was 35 years (range: 18-60 years). The USSQ domain scores with the stent in situ were higher than poststent status. The test-retest reliability checked by Cronbach's α coefficient (>0.44) and Spearman's correlation coefficient (>0.44) were acceptable to good. We found high discriminant validity of the questionnaire between patients with stent and the healthy controls (P < 0.05).


Our results demonstrate satisfactory validity for the Hindi version of the USSQ for the assessment of quality of life in patients with stent. This is ready for application in the clinical studies and the future stent-related research in Hindi language.

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