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BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 18;19(1):329. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3885-7.

Sero-epidemiological status and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Northern Vietnam.

Author information

1
Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium. suzanne.smit@ugent.be.
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Nationalestraat 155, B-2000, Antwerp, Belgium. suzanne.smit@ugent.be.
3
Institute of Health and Society (IRSS), Université catholique de Louvain, Clos Chapelle-aux-champs 30, 1200 Woluwe-Saint Lambert, Brussels, Belgium. suzanne.smit@ugent.be.
4
Parasitology Department of the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology (NIMPE), 245 Luong The Vinh, Nam Tu Liem, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
5
National Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 43 Trang Thi street, Hoan Kiem, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
6
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Hospital of Thai Binh, 530A Ly Bon street, Thai Binh city, Thai Binh province, Viet Nam.
7
Institute of Health and Society (IRSS), Université catholique de Louvain, Clos Chapelle-aux-champs 30, 1200 Woluwe-Saint Lambert, Brussels, Belgium.
8
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Sciensano, Rue Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050, Brussels, Belgium.
9
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.
10
Department of Clinical Biology, Microbiology and Immunology, Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.
11
School of Life Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, 3590, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
12
Women's Clinic, Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.
13
Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.
14
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Nationalestraat 155, B-2000, Antwerp, Belgium.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In Vietnam, few studies have determined the epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and no routine prenatal screening is in place. This study was conducted to evaluate the seroprevalence of this zoonotic parasitic infection in pregnant women in Northern Vietnam and to assess the association with awareness, risk factors and congenital toxoplasmosis.

METHODS:

Approximately 800 pregnant women were included in the study from two hospitals, one in Hanoi and one in Thai Binh province, which is known to have a dense cat population. Serological immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) detection was performed to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and sero-incidence of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition, a survey was conducted about awareness, clinical history, presentation of signs and symptoms relating to toxoplasmosis and to detect biologically plausible and socio-demographic risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis. Associations with seroprevalence were assessed using univariable and multivariable analysis.

RESULTS:

The mean IgG seroprevalence after the full diagnostic process was 4.5% (95% confidence interval(CI): 2.7-7.0) and 5.8% (95% CI: 3.7-8.6) in Hanoi and Thai Binh hospital, respectively, and included one seroconversion diagnosed in Thai Binh hospital. Only 2.0% of the pregnant women in Hanoi hospital and 3.3% in Thai Binh hospital had heard about toxoplasmosis before this study.

CONCLUSION:

Since the percentage of seronegative, and thus susceptible, pregnant women was high and the awareness was low, we suggest to distribute information about toxoplasmosis and its prevention among women of child bearing age. Furthermore, future studies are recommended to investigate why such a low seroprevalence was seen in pregnant women in Northern Vietnam compared to other countries in South East Asia and globally.

KEYWORDS:

Congenital toxoplasmosis; Prevention; Risk factors; Seroprevalence; Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy; Vietnam

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