Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Molecules. 2019 Apr 17;24(8). pii: E1517. doi: 10.3390/molecules24081517.

Zeolite Clinoptilolite: Therapeutic Virtues of an Ancient Mineral.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy. andrea.mastinu@unibs.it.
2
Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, 14183 Huddinge, Sweden. amit.kumar@ki.se.
3
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy. giuseppina.maccarinelli@unibs.it.
4
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy. sara.bonini@unibs.it.
5
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy. m.premoli002@unibs.it.
6
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy. f.aria@unibs.it.
7
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy. alessandra.gianoncelli@unibs.itt.
8
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy. maurizio.memo@unibs.it.

Abstract

Zeolites are porous minerals with high absorbency and ion-exchange capacity. Their molecular structure is a dense network of AlO4 and SiO4 that generates cavities where water and other polar molecules or ions are inserted/exchanged. Even though there are several synthetic or natural occurring species of zeolites, the most widespread and studied is the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite (ZC). ZC is an excellent detoxifying, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. As a result, it is been used in many industrial applications ranging from environmental remediation to oral applications/supplementation in vivo in humans as food supplements or medical devices. Moreover, the modification as micronization of ZC (M-ZC) or tribomechanically activated zeolite clinoptilolite (TMAZ) or furthermore as double tribomechanically activated zeolite clinoptilolite (PMA-ZC) allows improving its benefits in preclinical and clinical models. Despite its extensive use, many underlying action mechanisms of ZC in its natural or modified forms are still unclear, especially in humans. The main aim of this review is to shed light on the geochemical aspects and therapeutic potentials of ZC with a vision of endorsing further preclinical and clinical research on zeolites, in specific on the ZC and its modified forms as a potential agent for promoting human brain health and overall well-being.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer disease; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; detoxifying; micronization; tribomechanical activation; zeolite clinoptilolite

PMID:
30999685
PMCID:
PMC6515299
DOI:
10.3390/molecules24081517
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center