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Molecules. 2019 Apr 17;24(8). pii: E1516. doi: 10.3390/molecules24081516.

Advances in the Understanding of Skin Cancer: Ultraviolet Radiation, Mutations, and Antisense Oligonucleotides as Anticancer Drugs.

Author information

1
Medical Academy named after S.I. Georgievsky, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Lenin Boulevard 5/7, 295051 Simferopol, Crimea. botan_icus@mail.ru.
2
Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea, Kiyevskaya St. 150, 295493, Simferopol, Crimea. botan_icus@mail.ru.
3
Taurida Academy, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Vernadsky Av. 4, 295007 Simferopol, Crimea. genepcr@mail.ru.
4
Nikita Botanical Gardens ⁻ National Scientific Centre RAS, Nikitsky spusk 52, vil. Nikita, 298648 Yalta, Crimea. genepcr@mail.ru.
5
Taurida Academy, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Vernadsky Av. 4, 295007 Simferopol, Crimea. akrasnodubets@gmail.com.
6
Taurida Academy, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Vernadsky Av. 4, 295007 Simferopol, Crimea. pcr.product@gmail.com.
7
Taurida Academy, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Vernadsky Av. 4, 295007 Simferopol, Crimea. useinovrefat@gmail.com.
8
Taurida Academy, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Vernadsky Av. 4, 295007 Simferopol, Crimea. i.nowikow2012@mail.ru.
9
Medical Academy named after S.I. Georgievsky, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Lenin Boulevard 5/7, 295051 Simferopol, Crimea. wwwzzznnn333@gmail.com.
10
D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya sq. 9, 125047 Moscow, Russia. mikgorlov@gmail.com.
11
Centre for Genomic and Regenerative Medicine, School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova St. 8, 690090 Vladivostok, Russia. nikitawayfarer@yandex.ru.
12
National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Palchevsky St. 17, 690041 Vladivostok, Russia. nikitawayfarer@yandex.ru.
13
Centre for Genomic and Regenerative Medicine, School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova St. 8, 690090 Vladivostok, Russia. vkumeiko@yandex.ru.
14
National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Palchevsky St. 17, 690041 Vladivostok, Russia. vkumeiko@yandex.ru.
15
Medical Academy named after S.I. Georgievsky, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Lenin Boulevard 5/7, 295051 Simferopol, Crimea. gemini_m@list.ru.
16
Medical Academy named after S.I. Georgievsky, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Lenin Boulevard 5/7, 295051 Simferopol, Crimea. evgu79@mail.ru.
17
Medical Academy named after S.I. Georgievsky, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Lenin Boulevard 5/7, 295051 Simferopol, Crimea. fomochkina_i@mail.ru.
18
D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya sq. 9, 125047 Moscow, Russia. sin.sad92@gmail.com.
19
Ltd "NPF Syntol", Тimiryazevskaya St. 42, 127434 Moscow, Russia. mikki1@mail.ru.
20
Medical Academy named after S.I. Georgievsky, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Lenin Boulevard 5/7, 295051 Simferopol, Crimea. kubyshkin_av@mail.ru.

Abstract

Skin cancer has always been and remains the leader among all tumors in terms of occurrence. One of the main factors responsible for skin cancer, natural and artificial UV radiation, causes the mutations that transform healthy cells into cancer cells. These mutations inactivate apoptosis, an event required to avoid the malignant transformation of healthy cells. Among these deadliest of cancers, melanoma and its 'younger sister', Merkel cell carcinoma, are the most lethal. The heavy toll of skin cancers stems from their rapid progression and the fact that they metastasize easily. Added to this is the difficulty in determining reliable margins when excising tumors and the lack of effective chemotherapy. Possibly the biggest problem posed by skin cancer is reliably detecting the extent to which cancer cells have spread throughout the body. The initial tumor is visible and can be removed, whereas metastases are invisible to the naked eye and much harder to eliminate. In our opinion, antisense oligonucleotides, which can be used in the form of targeted ointments, provide real hope as a treatment that will eliminate cancer cells near the tumor focus both before and after surgery.

KEYWORDS:

Merkel cell carcinoma; antisense oligonucleotides; basal cell carcinoma; dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans; melanoma; mutations; skin; squamous cell carcinoma; ultraviolet radiation

PMID:
30999681
PMCID:
PMC6514765
DOI:
10.3390/molecules24081516
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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