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Virology. 2019 Apr 3;532:22-29. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.03.020. [Epub ahead of print]

Calu-3 cells are largely resistant to entry driven by filovirus glycoproteins and the entry defect can be rescued by directed expression of DC-SIGN or cathepsin L.

Author information

1
Infection Biology Unit, German Primate Center - Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; Faculty of Biology and Psychology, Wilhelm-Weber-Str. 2, University Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany.
2
Institute for Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald, Germany.
3
Infection Biology Unit, German Primate Center - Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.
4
Infection Biology Unit, German Primate Center - Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; Faculty of Biology and Psychology, Wilhelm-Weber-Str. 2, University Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address: spoehlmann@dpz.eu.

Abstract

Priming of the viral glycoprotein (GP) by the cellular proteases cathepsin B and L (CatB, CatL) is believed to be essential for cell entry of filoviruses. However, pseudotyping systems that predominantly produce non-filamentous particles have frequently been used to prove this concept. Here, we report that GP-mediated entry of retroviral-, rhabdoviral and filoviral particles depends on CatB/CatL activity and that this effect is cell line-independent. Moreover, we show that the human cell line Calu-3, which expresses low amounts of CatL, is largely resistant to entry driven by diverse filovirus GPs. Finally, we demonstrate that Calu-3 cell entry mediated by certain filovirus GPs can be rescued upon directed expression of CatL or DC-SIGN. Our results identify Calu-3 cells as largely resistant to filovirus GP-driven entry and demonstrate that entry is limited at the stage of virion attachment and GP priming.

KEYWORDS:

Cathepsin L; DC-SIGN; Ebola virus; Filovirus; Glycoprotein; Host cell entry; Marburg virus

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