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PLoS One. 2019 Apr 18;14(4):e0215440. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215440. eCollection 2019.

Association of periodontal disease with depression and adverse birth outcomes: Results from the Perinatal database; Finger Lakes region, New York State.

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Department of Dentistry, Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States of America.
Department of Clinical and Translational Research, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States of America.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States of America.


Preterm and low birth weight infants are at greater risk for mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems. Data from the Finger Lakes Perinatal Data System database on 316,956 deliveries occurring between 2004-2014 and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed to assess the association of periodontal (gum) disease with depression, other maternal factors and adverse birth outcomes. Adjusted effects of periodontal disease and depression on adverse birth outcomes were estimated using multiple logistic regression models and path analysis. Having preterm delivery was associated significantly with depression (OR = 1.177; 95% CI: [1.146, 1.208]), having adequate health care (OR = 1.638; 95% CI: [1.589, 1.689]), smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.259; 95% CI: [1.220, 1.300]), and being less educated (OR = 1.214; 95% CI: [1.174, 1.256]). Having low birth weight was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.206; 95% CI: [1.170, 1.208]), smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.855; 95% CI: [1.793, 1.919]), and being less educated (OR = 1.322; 95% CI: [1.275, 1.370]). Periodontal disease was significantly associated with alcohol use during pregnancy (OR = 1.314; 95% CI: [1.227, 1.407]) and white race (OR = 1.192; 95% CI: [1.167, 1.217]). Depression was significantly associated with periodontal disease (OR = 1.762; 95% CI: [1.727, 1.797]) and alcohol use during pregnancy (OR = 1.470; 95% CI: [1.377, 1.570]). We concluded that a positive association existed between depression during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, and that depression served as a mediator in the association of periodontal disease with adverse birth outcomes.

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