Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 17. pii: ciz299. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz299. [Epub ahead of print]

Impact of abstinence and of reducing illicit drug use without abstinence on HIV viral load.

Author information

1
University of Washington, Collaborative Health Studies Coordinating Center, Building, Suite, Seattle, WA.
2
University of Washington, Collaborative Health Studies Coordinating Center, Suite, Seattle, WA.
3
Yale University School of Medicine, Suite, New Haven, CT.
4
Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI.
5
Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
6
National Institute on Drug Abuse, MSC, Bethesda, MD.
7
University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
8
Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY.
9
University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.
10
Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
11
University of Washington, Suite, Seattle, WA.
12
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.
13
University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
14
George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
15
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
16
University of California San Diego, UCSD Medical Center, San Diego, CA.
17
Harvard Medical School, Fenway Institute, Boston, MA.
18
Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD.
19
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.
20
University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
21
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop, Atlanta, GA.
22
University of Washington, Collaborative Health Studies Coordinating Center, Box, Suite, Seattle, WA.
23
George Mason University, Fairfax, VA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Substance use is common among people living with HIV (PLWH) and a barrier to achieving viral suppression.

OBJECTIVE:

Among PLWH who report illicit drug use, we evaluated associations between HIV viral load (VL) and reduced use of illicit opioids, methamphetamine/crystal, cocaine/crack, and marijuana, regardless of whether or not abstinence was achieved.

DESIGN:

Longitudinal cohort studySetting/participantsPLWH in clinical care at 8 HIV clinics or 5 clinical studies.

MEASUREMENTS:

We used joint longitudinal and survival models to examine the impact of decreasing drug use and of abstinence for each drug on viral suppression. We repeated analyses using linear mixed models to examine associations between change in frequency of drug use and VL.

RESULTS:

The number of PLWH who were using each drug at baseline ranged from n=568 (illicit opioids) to n=4272 (marijuana). Abstinence was associated with higher odds of viral suppression (OR 1.4-2.2) and lower relative VL (ranging from 21-42% by drug) for all four drug categories. Reducing frequency of illicit opioid or methamphetamine/crystal use without abstinence was associated with VL suppression (OR 2.2, 1.6 respectively). Reducing frequency of illicit opioid or methamphetamine/crystal use without abstinence was associated with lower relative VL (47%, 38% respectively).

LIMITATIONS:

Observational data have limitations with causal inference.

CONCLUSIONS:

Abstinence was associated with viral suppression. In addition, reducing use of illicit opioids or methamphetamine/crystal, even without abstinence, was also associated with viral suppression. Findings highlight the impact of reducing substance use even when abstinence is not achieved and the potential benefits of medications, behavioral interventions, and harm-reduction interventions.

KEYWORDS:

abstinence; drug use; heroin; substance use; viral load; viral suppression

PMID:
30994900
DOI:
10.1093/cid/ciz299

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center