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Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 Apr 23;47(7):e41. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkz074.

WHISTLE: a high-accuracy map of the human N6-methyladenosine (m6A) epitranscriptome predicted using a machine learning approach.

Chen K1,2, Wei Z1,2, Zhang Q1, Wu X1,2, Rong R1,3,4, Lu Z1,3,4, Su J3,5, de Magalhães JP2, Rigden DJ4, Meng J1,3,4.

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Department of Biological Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China.
Institute of Ageing & Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, L7 8TX Liverpool, UK.
Research Center for Precision Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China.
Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, L7 8TX Liverpool, UK.
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China.


N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent post-transcriptional modification in eukaryotes, and plays a pivotal role in various biological processes, such as splicing, RNA degradation and RNA-protein interaction. We report here a prediction framework WHISTLE for transcriptome-wide m6A RNA-methylation site prediction. When tested on six independent datasets, our approach, which integrated 35 additional genomic features besides the conventional sequence features, achieved a major improvement in the accuracy of m6A site prediction (average AUC: 0.948 and 0.880 under the full transcript or mature messenger RNA models, respectively) compared to the state-of-the-art computational approaches MethyRNA (AUC: 0.790 and 0.732) and SRAMP (AUC: 0.761 and 0.706). It also out-performed the existing epitranscriptome databases MeT-DB (AUC: 0.798 and 0.744) and RMBase (AUC: 0.786 and 0.736), which were built upon hundreds of epitranscriptome high-throughput sequencing samples. To probe the putative biological processes impacted by changes in an individual m6A site, a network-based approach was implemented according to the 'guilt-by-association' principle by integrating RNA methylation profiles, gene expression profiles and protein-protein interaction data. Finally, the WHISTLE web server was built to facilitate the query of our high-accuracy map of the human m6A epitranscriptome, and the server is freely available at: and

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