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BMC Genomics. 2019 Apr 16;20(1):300. doi: 10.1186/s12864-019-5674-5.

Novel Stenotrophomonas maltophilia temperate phage DLP4 is capable of lysogenic conversion.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Sciences, 6-065 Centennial Centre for Interdisciplinery Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E9, Canada.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, 6-065 Centennial Centre for Interdisciplinery Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E9, Canada. jon.dennis@ualberta.ca.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Temperate bacteriophages are capable of lysogenic conversion of new bacterial hosts. This phenomenon is often ascribed to "moron" elements that are acquired horizontally and transcribed independently from the rest of the phage genes. Whereas some bacterial species exhibit relatively little prophage-dependent phenotypic changes, other bacterial species such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia appear to commonly adopt prophage genetic contributions.

RESULTS:

The novel S. maltophilia bacteriophage DLP4 was isolated from soil using the highly antibiotic-resistant S. maltophilia strain D1585. Genome sequence analysis and functionality testing showed that DLP4 is a temperate phage capable of lysogenizing D1585. Two moron genes of interest, folA (BIT20_024) and ybiA (BIT20_065), were identified and investigated for their putative activities using complementation testing and phenotypic and transcriptomic changes between wild-type D1585 and the D1585::DLP4 lysogen. The gp24 / folA gene encodes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR: FolA), an enzyme responsible for resistance to the antibiotic trimethoprim. I-TASSER analysis of DLP4 FolA predicted structural similarity to Bacillus anthracis DHFR and minimum inhibitory concentration experiments demonstrated that lysogenic conversion of D1585 by DLP4 provided the host cell with an increase in trimethoprim resistance. The gp65 / ybiA gene encodes N-glycosidase YbiA, which in E. coli BW25113 is required for its swarming motility phenotype. Expressing DLP4 ybiA in strain ybiA770(del)::kan restored its swarming motility activity to wildtype levels. Reverse transcription-PCR confirmed the expression of both of these genes during DLP4 lysogeny.

CONCLUSIONS:

S. maltophilia temperate phage DLP4 contributes to the antibiotic resistance exhibited by its lysogenized host strain. Genomic analyses can greatly assist in the identification of phage moron genes potentially involved in lysogenic conversion. Further research is required to fully understand the specific contributions temperate phage moron genes provide with respect to the antibiotic resistance and virulence of S. maltophilia host cells.

KEYWORDS:

Antibiotic resistance; Bacteriophage; Phage receptor; Prophage; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; Swarming motility; Temperate phage

PMID:
30991961
PMCID:
PMC6469090
DOI:
10.1186/s12864-019-5674-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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