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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Sep 1;104(9):3610-3613. doi: 10.1210/jc.2019-00453.

Impaired Fat Oxidation During Exercise in Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Patients and Effect of IV-Glucose.

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Department of Neurology, Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Department of Pediatrics, Centre for Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Department of Clinical Genetics, Centre for Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.



Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) affects oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (FAO) and is associated with risk of metabolic crises and episodic rhabdomyolysis.


We present the cases of two patients with LCHADD. Patient 1 (male, 26 years old) was severely affected by muscle weakness and neuropathy. He was diagnosed at age 20 years and was nonadherent to standard dietary management. MRI revealed significant fat replacement of muscle in both calves. Patient 2 (female, 15 years old) was diagnosed at age 1 year. She had no muscle weakness and was compliant with the recommended diet. Compared with healthy persons, both patients had reduced FAO and palmitate oxidation, measured with indirect calorimetry and stable isotope technique during a submaximal cycle ergometer test. Patient 2 had some residual capacity to increase FAO and a compensatory higher carbohydrate oxidation, which ensured a near-normal exercise capacity. Patient 1 was unable to increase FAO and could only complete 23 minutes of exercise, vs 60 minutes by patient 2 and healthy persons. In both, 10% IV infusion of glucose (IV-glucose) during exercise increased carbohydrate oxidation slightly, but endurance was not improved, which likely relates to the fixed weakness in patient 1 and because the residual FAO was suppressed by the glucose infusion in both.


The two patients illustrate that FAO is impaired and carbohydrate oxidation is elevated during exercise in patients affected by LCHADD, compared with healthy persons, but IV-glucose has no beneficial effect on exercise tolerance in LCHADD.


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