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Virol Sin. 2019 Apr 15. doi: 10.1007/s12250-019-00102-7. [Epub ahead of print]

Interferon as a Mucosal Adjuvant for an Influenza Vaccine in Pigs.

Liu L1,2, Fan W1, Zhang H1, Zhang S1, Cui L1,2, Wang M1,2, Bai X1,2, Yang W1,2, Sun L1,2, Yang L1, Liu W3,4, Li J5,6.

Author information

1
CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.
3
CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. liuwj@im.ac.cn.
4
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. liuwj@im.ac.cn.
5
CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. lj418@163.com.
6
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. lj418@163.com.

Abstract

Interferon, a natural protein that is produced by a variety of cells during viral infection, activates the transcription of multiple functional genes in cells, regulates synergy among various signaling pathways, and mediates many biological functions such as antiviral activity, immune regulation, and cell growth. However, clinical research on interferon in livestock is lacking. In this study, recombinant porcine interferon (PoIFNα) was used as an adjuvant, in combination with inactivated influenza virus, to vaccinate 6-week-old pigs via nasal infusion. The transcription of target genes was then monitored and the functions of PoIFNα were determined with respect to the activation of mucosal immunity. We found that a combination of low-dose PoIFNα and inactivated influenza virus could significantly up-regulate the expression of immunoregulatory cytokines such as IL-2, IL-18, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 by real-time PCR, suggesting the induction of a strong mucosal innate immune response after administration. In addition, low-dose PoIFNα can significant enhancing the transcription of genes encoding homing factors including CCR9 and CCR10 (P < 0.001), thereby resulting in the induction of higher levels of HA-specific antibodies (P < 0.05), which can be determined by ELISA and IFA. Post-immunization challenges with H1N1 virus demonstrated that PoIFNα, combined with inactivated influenza virus, could alleviate clinical signs in pigs during the early stages of viral infection. These studies reveal low-dose PoIFNα as a potential mucosal adjuvant for influenza virus in pigs.

KEYWORDS:

Cytokines; H1N1 influenza virus; Intranasal administration; Porcine interferon α (PoIFNα)

PMID:
30989429
DOI:
10.1007/s12250-019-00102-7

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