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Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 3;20(7). pii: E1662. doi: 10.3390/ijms20071662.

Ameliorative Effect of Spinach on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced in Rats by a High-Fat Diet.

Author information

1
Department of Food Technology, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca-UMU), University Clinical Hospital "Virgen de la Arrixaca", University of Murcia, Espinardo, 30071 Murcia, Spain. lauraines.elvira@um.es.
2
Department of Food Engineering, Tierra Blanca Superior Technological Institute, 95180 Tierra Blanca, Veracruz, Mexico. lauraines.elvira@um.es.
3
Department of Food Technology, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca-UMU), University Clinical Hospital "Virgen de la Arrixaca", University of Murcia, Espinardo, 30071 Murcia, Spain. galamartin@um.es.
4
Department of Food Technology, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca-UMU), University Clinical Hospital "Virgen de la Arrixaca", University of Murcia, Espinardo, 30071 Murcia, Spain. rgbarrio@um.es.
5
Department of Food Technology, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca-UMU), University Clinical Hospital "Virgen de la Arrixaca", University of Murcia, Espinardo, 30071 Murcia, Spain. inmaculada.navarro@um.es.
6
Department of Anatomy and Comparative Pathological Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, Espinardo, 30071 Murcia, Spain. pallares@um.es.
7
Department of Food Technology, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca-UMU), University Clinical Hospital "Virgen de la Arrixaca", University of Murcia, Espinardo, 30071 Murcia, Spain. marinasp@um.es.
8
Department of Food Technology, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca-UMU), University Clinical Hospital "Virgen de la Arrixaca", University of Murcia, Espinardo, 30071 Murcia, Spain. fjgarcia@um.es.
9
Anchormen, Pedro de Medinalaan 11, 1086 XK Amsterdam, The Netherlands. asevilla@um.es.
10
Department of Food Technology, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca-UMU), University Clinical Hospital "Virgen de la Arrixaca", University of Murcia, Espinardo, 30071 Murcia, Spain. mjperi@um.es.

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of dietary carotenoids from spinach on the inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers, liver lipid profile, and liver transcriptomic and metabolomics profiles in Sprague-Dawley rats with steatosis induced by a high-fat diet. Two concentrations of spinach powder (2.5 and 5%) were used in two types of diet: high-fat (H) and standard (N). Although rats fed diet H showed an accumulation of fat in hepatocytes, they did not show differences in the values of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and oxygen radical absorption (ORAC) in plasma or of isoprostanes in urine compared with animals fed diet N. The consumption of spinach and the accumulation of α and β carotenes and lutein in the liver was inversely correlated with serum total cholesterol and glucose and the content of hepatic cholesterol, increasing monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and reducing cholesterol in the livers of rats fed diet H and spinach. In addition, changes in the expression of genes related to the fatty liver condition occurred, and the expression of genes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and cholesterol increased, mainly through the overexpression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). Related to liver metabolites, animals fed with diet H showed hypoaminoacidemia, mainly for the glucogenic aminoacids. Although no changes were observed in inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers, the consumption of spinach modulated the lipid metabolism in liver, which must be taken into consideration during the dietary treatment of steatosis.

KEYWORDS:

carotenoids; gene expression; lipid metabolism; metabolomic; spinach; steatosis

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