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Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2019 Jun 17;58(25):8536-8540. doi: 10.1002/anie.201904534. Epub 2019 May 17.

Generating New Cross-Relaxation Pathways by Coating Prussian Blue on NaNdF4 To Fabricate Enhanced Photothermal Agents.

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School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637459, Singapore.
Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts & Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210023, China.
College of chemistry and molecular engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.


Cross-relaxation among sensitizers is commonly regarded as deleterious in fluorescent materials, although favorable in photothermal agents. Herein, we coated Prussian blue (PB) on NaNdF4 nanoparticles to fabricate core-shell nanocomplexes with new cross relaxation pathways between the ladder-like energy levels of Nd3+ ions and continuous energy band of PB. The photothermal conversion efficiency was improved exceptionally and the mechanism of the enhanced photothermal effect was investigated. In vivo photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy demonstrated the potential of the enhanced photothermal agents. Moreover, the concept of generating new cross-relaxation pathways between different materials is proposed to contribute to the design of all kinds of enhanced photothermal agents.


cross-relaxation; dyes/pigments; electronic structure; nanostructures; photothermal agents


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