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Indian J Plast Surg. 2018 Sep-Dec;51(3):309-315. doi: 10.4103/ijps.IJPS_11_18.

The characteristics of private plastic surgery practice in developing country: An epidemiological study.

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Department of Plastic Surgery, Casa Lovina Plastic Surgery Clinic, Banten, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Department of Plastic Surgery, Dharmais Cancer Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Plastic Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.



With the rise in working-age population, there has been notable economic growth in Indonesia. Along with it, there is an increase in expenditure for non-food items such as health-care service, without exception to plastic surgery practice. Aesthetic plastic surgery practice has gained its popularity in several other developing countries such as Brazil, Russia, India and China. Epidemiology report of private plastic surgery practice in Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, will provide the evidence of increasing need for aesthetic plastic surgery practices as the basis for further improvement.


This is a single-centre descriptive cross-sectional study with a total sampling method which included all patients registered at a private plastic surgery clinic between January 2008 and December 2016.


There were 1457 medical procedures. The majority (93.4%) of patients were female. More than 80% were surgical procedures, the most common ones were breast implant and blepharoplasty with the latter being similarly popular in both gender. The majority of the patients fell into 20-45-year-old group. Patients <20-year-old had undergone a more minor surgical procedure such as skin tumour and nevus excision or scar treatment while patients >45-year-old had more procedures with rejuvenation purpose.


The epidemiology of private plastic surgery practice in an urban area of developing country resembles those in either developed or developing countries with a similar socio-demographic profile. This data can be further utilised for a more focused private plastic surgery practice improvement. The limitation however is that, the study is based on a single centre data.


Aesthetic surgery; epidemiology; private plastic surgery

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