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Brain Dev. 2019 Apr 11. pii: S0387-7604(18)30514-X. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2019.04.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Flavin adenine dinucleotide synthase deficiency due to FLAD1 mutation presenting as multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency-like disease: A case report.

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Department of Pediatrics, Shimane University, Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan. Electronic address:
Departmental of Metabolism, Shikoku Medical Center for Children and Adults, Zentsuji, Kagawa, Japan.
Department of Pediatrics, Shimane University, Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan.


Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), also known as glutaric acidemia type II, is classically caused by a congenital defect in electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or ETF dehydrogenase (ETFDH). Flavin adenine dinucleotide synthase (FADS) deficiency caused by mutations in FLAD1 was recently reported as a novel riboflavin metabolism disorder resembling MADD. Here, we describe a Japanese boy with FADS deficiency due to a novel mutation (p.R249*) in FLAD1. In the asymptomatic male infant born at full term, newborn screening showed positive results with elevated C5 and C14:1 acylcarnitine levels and an increased C14:1/C2 ratio. Biochemical studies were unremarkable except for lactic acidosis (pH 7.197, lactate 61 mg/dL). A diagnosis of MADD was suspected because of mild abnormalities of the acylcarnitine profile and apparent abnormalities of urinary organic acids, although mutations in the ETFA, ETFB, ETFDH, and riboflavin transporter genes (SLC52A1, SLC52A2, and SLC52A3) were not detected. Administration of riboflavin and L-carnitine was initiated at one month of age based on the diagnosis of "biochemical MADD" despite a lack of symptoms. Nevertheless, the acylcarnitine profile was not normalized. Symptoms resembling bulbar palsy, such as vocal cord paralysis and dyspnea with stridor, were present from 3 months of age. At 4 months of age, he became bedridden because of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy due to fulminant respiratory failure with aspiration pneumonia. At 2 years and 5 months of age, a homozygous c.745C > T (p.R249*) mutation in the FLAD1 gene was identified, confirming the diagnosis of FADS deficiency. His severe clinical course may be caused by this nonsense mutation associated with poor responsiveness to riboflavin. Persistent lactic acidosis and neuropathy, such as bulbar palsy, may be important for diagnosing FADS deficiency. Although the biochemical findings in FADS deficiency are similar to those in MADD, their clinical symptoms and severity may not be identical.


Bulbar palsy; FLAD1; Flavin adenine dinucleotide synthase deficiency; Glutaric acidemia type II; Infantile onset; Lactic acidosis; Mitochondrial disease; Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency; Newborn screening; Riboflavin

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