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Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2019 Apr 10. pii: S0891-5520(19)30017-0. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2019.03.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Human Monkeypox: Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics, Diagnosis, and Prevention.

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Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Aarhus, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 82, Aarhus N DK-8200, Denmark; The Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman; European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Task Force for Emerging Infections, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:
Inflammation Center, Helsinki University Hospital and Helsinki University, Stenbäckinkatu 9, PO BOX 100, Helsinki FI-00029 HUS, Finland.
Viroscience Department, Erasmus Medical Centre, Postbus 2040, Rotterdam 3000 CA, the Netherlands.
Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria; Department of Public Health, and Institute of Lassa Fever Research and Control, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria.
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Plot 801, Ebitu Ukiwe Street, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria.
Division of Infection and Immunity, Center for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, The National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at UCL Hospitals, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.


Recently, concern has been raised about the emergence of human monkeypox virus and the occasionally severe clinical presentation bearing resemblance to that of smallpox. In 2018 3 patients in the UK were diagnosed with monkeypox, and the frequency and geographic distribution of cases across West and Central Africa have increased in recent years. In Nigeria, most monkeypox patients are aged <40 years and lack cross-protective immunity because they were born after discontinuation of the smallpox eradication campaign. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of monkeypox and discusses its growing public health threat in this context.


Epidemic; Monkeypox; Smallpox; West Africa


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