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Phytomedicine. 2019 Apr 6;59:152922. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2019.152922. [Epub ahead of print]

Atractylenolide III ameliorates cerebral ischemic injury and neuroinflammation associated with inhibiting JAK2/STAT3/Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission in microglia.

Author information

1
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027 Zhejiang, China; Integrative & Optimized Medicine Research center, China-USA Institute for Acupuncture and Rehabilitation, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, 211198 Nanjing, China; Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3E 0J9 Manitoba, Canada.
2
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027 Zhejiang, China; Integrative & Optimized Medicine Research center, China-USA Institute for Acupuncture and Rehabilitation, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.
3
Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
4
Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3E 0J9 Manitoba, Canada. Electronic address: Jiming.Kong@umanitoba.ca.
5
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, 211198 Nanjing, China. Electronic address: junpingkou@cpu.edu.cn.
6
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027 Zhejiang, China; Integrative & Optimized Medicine Research center, China-USA Institute for Acupuncture and Rehabilitation, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address: songhe.jiang@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Inflammation is a major contributor to stroke pathology, making it a promising strategy for intervention. Microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, play essential roles in both the generation and resolution of neuroinflammation. In particular, mitochondrial homeostasis is critical for microglial function and its dysregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Atractylenolide III (A III), a sesquiterpene lactone found in Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz, has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on inflammation. However, its effect specifically on neuroinflammation and microglial mitochondrial homeostasis following stroke remains elusive.

HYPOTHESIS:

We hypothesized that A III protects against brain ischemia through inhibition of neuroinflammation mediated by JAK2/STAT3/Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission.

METHODS:

The neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of A III were investigated in vivo in mice with transient occlusion to the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) and in vitro in oxygen glucose deprivation-reoxygenation (OGDR)-stimulated primary microglia from mice.

RESULTS:

A III and AG490, an inhibitor of JAK2, treatment reduced brain infarct size, restored cerebral blood flow (CBF), ameliorated brain edema and improved neurological deficits in MCAO mice. Furthermore, A III and AG490 inhibited mRNA and protein expressions of proinflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines in both MCAO mice and OGDR-stimulated primary microglia. The JAK2/STAT3 pathway was effectively suppressed by A III, similar to the effect of AG490 treatment. In addition, A III and AG490 treatments significantly decreased Drp1 phosphorylation, translocation and mitochondrial fission in primary microglia stimulated with OGDR for 24 h.

CONCLUSION:

Our study demonstrated that A III was able to reduce complications associated with ischemia through inhibiting neuroinflammation, which was mediated in part by JAK2/STAT3-dependent mitochondrial fission in microglia.

KEYWORDS:

Atractylenolide III; JAK2/STAT3; Mitochondrial fission; Neuroinflammation; Stroke

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