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J Affect Disord. 2019 Jun 1;252:122-129. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.04.016. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Cross-sectional and longitudinal association of non-exercise estimated cardiorespiratory fitness with depression and anxiety in the general population: The HUNT study.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address: shigdelrajesh@gmail.com.
2
Physiotherapy Department, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AZ, United Kingdom; Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King`s College London, De Crespigny Park, London, United Kingdom.
3
Department of Exercise Science, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.
4
Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cardiorespiratory fitness may help to prevent depression and anxiety. A paucity of literature has considered the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and the incidence of depression and anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with depression and anxiety.

METHODS:

This study included middle-aged and older participants from the second (HUNT 2, 1995-1997) and third (HUNT3, 2006-2008) survery of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Baseline non-exercise estimated CRF (eCRF) was determined using standardized algorithms. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between eCRF and depression and anxiety.

RESULTS:

In cross-sectional adjusted analysis including those who participated in HUNT2 (n = 26,615 mean age 55.7 years), those with medium and high level of eCRF had 21% (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71-0.89) and 26% (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.66-0.83) lower odds of depression compared to those with low eCRF level, respectively. Longitudinal analysis including those who participated in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 (n = 14,020 mean age 52.2 years) found that medium and level of eCRF was associated with 22% (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64-0.96) and 19% (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99) lower odds of depression compared to those with low eCRF level, respectively. CRF was not associated with anxiety, either cross-sectionally or longitudinally.

CONCLUSION:

Our data suggest that a medium and high level of eCRF during late middle age is cross-sectionally and prospectively associated with lower odds of depression. However, our data do not support that eCRF is associated with anxiety. Further studies are warranted to conclude a causal relationship between eCRF and depression.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety; Cardiorespiratory fitness; Depression; HUNT; Physical activity

PMID:
30981055
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2019.04.016

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