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Biomarkers. 2019 Apr 12:1-12. doi: 10.1080/1354750X.2019.1606280. [Epub ahead of print]

Phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on diethylnitrosamine toxicity in rats.

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a Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science , Cairo University , Giza , Egypt.
b Department of Special Food and Nutrition , Food Technology Research Institute Agriculture Research Center , Giza , Egypt.



Chronic liver damage has serious medical consequences.


To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of dry Zingiber officinale (ginger) and its essential (volatile) oil against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) toxicity in rats.


Phenols and flavonoids components were characterized in dry ginger using HPLC-UV instrument while ginger essential oil (E.O.) was investigated via GC-MS technique. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro. In rat model, ginger was administrated for 2 months. Lipid profile, antioxidant biomarkers, liver functions and histopathology were assessed.


Chlorogenic acid (63.85 ppm) and hesperidin (156.91 ppm) are among the major phenolic and flavonoid constituents in dry ginger. Curcumene (15.21%) and linalool (13.47%) represent the main E.O. constituents. In rats treated with ginger E.O., a significant elevation in serum HDL (31.14%) was accompanied by a decrease in LDL (55.14%). A significant decrease in serum ALT and ALP was reported (56.85% and 53.84%, respectively). Serum GSH-Px activity has significantly increased 75.06%. Meanwhile, E.O. showed anticancer potential against HepG2 cell line (IC50 = 40 µg/mL). Liver histopathological examinations confirmed the protective effect against abnormalities.


Ginger was able to reduce the severity of DEN-cytotoxicity in rats, which suggests a novel antioxidant role originating from this medicinal plant.


Diethylnitrosamine toxicity; essential oil; ginger; hepatoprotective effect

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