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Phys Ther Sport. 2019 May;37:150-156. doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2019.04.001. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Training volume is associated with pain sensitivity, but not with endogenous pain modulation, in competitive swimmers.

Author information

1
Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Human Physiology and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium; Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
2
Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
3
Department of Human Physiology and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium; Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, University Hospital Brussels, Belgium.
4
Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology, University Hospital Antwerp, Belgium.
5
Department of Human Physiology and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium; Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Transcare, Transdisciplinary Pain Management Centre, the Netherlands.
6
Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. Electronic address: filip.struyf@uantwerpen.be.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the association of pain sensitivity and endogenous analgesia capacity, and training volume in a group of competitive swimmers.

DESIGN:

An observational multi-center study.

SETTING:

Multiple competitive swimming clubs.

PARTICIPANTS:

102 healthy competitive swimmers.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Training volume was estimated using self-reported information. Static and dynamic measures of pain were assessed using pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM), the latter as a measure of endogenous pain inhibition. Selected demographic and psychosocial measures were considered as possible confounding factors.

RESULTS:

Moderate positive correlations (0.38 < r < 0.44; p < 0.01) exist between self-reported training volume and PPTs at widespread body areas in competitive swimmers. These results were maintained during linear regression analysis while addressing possible confounding factors such as age and selected psychosocial factors. No associations were found between self-reported training volume and conditioned pain modulation (-0.08 < r < 0.06; p > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Self-reported swim training volume is associated with pain sensitivity in competitive swimmers. Swimmers who train more show higher pressure pain thresholds, indicating lower pain sensitivity. Swim training volume is not associated with endogenous nociceptive inhibitory capacity as determined using CPM.

KEYWORDS:

Athletes; Pressure algometry; Pressure pain threshold; Training volume

PMID:
30978601
DOI:
10.1016/j.ptsp.2019.04.001

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