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Neoplasia. 2019 May;21(5):482-493. doi: 10.1016/j.neo.2019.03.009. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Characterization of Distinct Populations of Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts from Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Reveals a Role for ST8SIA2 in Cancer Cell Invasion.

Author information

1
Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.
2
Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
3
Sheffield Institute of Translational Neuroscience, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, S1O 2HQ.
4
Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
5
Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Departments of Medical Biophysics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
6
Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Departments of Medical Biophysics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Ontario Institute of Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
7
Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: Roya.Navab@uhnresearch.ca.

Abstract

Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are abundant stromal cells in tumor microenvironment that are critically involved in cancer progression. Contrasting reports have shown that CAFs can have either pro- or antitumorigenic roles, indicating that CAFs are functionally heterogeneous. Therefore, to precisely target the cancer-promoting CAF subsets, it is necessary to identify specific markers to define these subpopulations and understand their functions. We characterized two CAFs subsets from 28 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient tumors that were scored and classified based on desmoplasia [mainly characterized by proliferating CAFs; high desmoplastic CAFs (HD-CAF; n = 15) and low desmoplastic CAFs (LD-CAF; n = 13)], which is an independent prognostic factor. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that HD-CAFs and LD-CAFs show different tumor-promoting abilities. HD-CAFs showed higher rate of collagen matrix remodeling, invasion, and tumor growth compared to LD-CAFs. Transcriptomic analysis identified 13 genes that were differentially significant (fold ≥1.5; adjusted P value < .1) between HD-CAFs and LD-CAFs. The top upregulated differentially expressed gene, ST8SIA2 (11.3 fold; adjusted P value = .02), enhanced NSCLC tumor cell invasion in 3D culture compared to control when it was overexpressed in CAFs, suggesting an important role of ST8SIA2 in cancer cell invasion. We confirmed the protumorigenic role of ST8SIA2, showing that ST8SIA2 was significantly associated with the risk of relapse in three independent NSCLC clinical datasets. In summary, our studies show that functional heterogeneity in CAF plays key role in promoting cancer cell invasion in NSCLC.

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