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Neurotoxicology. 2019 Apr 10;73:175-182. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2019.02.008. [Epub ahead of print]

Nicotine improved the olfactory impairment in MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology and Suzhou Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215004, China; Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China. Electronic address: 743066590@qq.com.
2
Department of Neurology and Suzhou Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215004, China; Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China. Electronic address: 1040529522@qq.com.
3
Department of Neurology and Suzhou Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215004, China; Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China. Electronic address: 356176440@qq.com.
4
Department of Neurology, Suzhou Municipal Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou, 215008, China. Electronic address: 435108964@qq.com.
5
Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China. Electronic address: 810728704@qq.com.
6
Department of Neurology and Suzhou Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215004, China. Electronic address: jing_ch.china@hotmail.com.
7
Department of Neurology and Suzhou Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215004, China. Electronic address: drchengjiemao@163.com.
8
Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China. Electronic address: wangfen_1982@126.com.
9
Department of Neurology, Suzhou Municipal Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou, 215008, China. Electronic address: liuyizr@163.com.
10
Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China. Electronic address: hulifang@suda.edu.cn.
11
Department of Neurology and Suzhou Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215004, China; Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China; Department of Neurology, Suzhou Municipal Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou, 215008, China. Electronic address: liuchunfeng@suda.edu.cn.

Abstract

Olfactory impairment is an early feature of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Retrospective epidemiological studies reported lower scores on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in non-smokers than smokers with PD and showed an inverse correlation between susceptibility to PD and a person's history of smoking. But the mechanisms by which cigarettes affect olfaction in PD are not fully understood. So we investigated the effect of nicotine on the olfactory function in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. We observed that nicotine improved locomotor activity and protection against dopaminergic neuron loss in the midbrain in MPTP-treated mice. Compared to controls, MPTP-treated mice showed a deficit of odor discrimination and odor detection, which were alleviated by nicotine treatment. But no significant changes were found in olfactory memory in MPTP-treated mice. Moreover, we detected a marked decrease of Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in the olfactory bulb (OB) in MPTP-treated mice, which was also attenuated by nicotine administration. In addition, nicotine ameliorated the loss of cholinergic neurons and dopaminergic innervation in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band (HDB), which is the primary origin of cholinergic input to the OB. Our results suggested that nicotine could improve the olfactory impairment by protecting cholinergic systems in the OB of MPTP-treated mice. And nicotine protection of cholinergic systems in the OB is relevant to attenuating dopaminergic neuron loss in the midbrain and HDB.

KEYWORDS:

Nicotine; Olfactory dysfunction; Parkinson’s disease; cHolinergic system

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