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J Oral Biol Craniofac Res. 2019 Apr-Jun;9(2):166-171. doi: 10.1016/j.jobcr.2019.03.005. Epub 2019 Mar 24.

Are changes in the stomatognatic system able to modify the eye balance in dyslexia?

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UMR 1231, University Bourgogne Franche-Comté; University Hospital, F-21000 Dijon, France.
Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Orofaciale, UFR Odontologie, Paris, Service d'Odontologie, University Hospital Pitié Salpêtrière, F- 75000 Paris, France.
INSERM U1093, University Bourgogne Franche-Comté, F-21000 Dijon, France.



To clarify the link between eye muscle function and oral information by comparing 21 dyslexic readers (DR) and 14 normal readers (NR).


Changes in vertical heterophoria (VH) were measured using the Maddox Rod Test performed according to oral modifications and postural conditions. The Spearman correlation was used to assess whether reading delay was correlated with the lability index.


Overall, 50% of NR children and 81% of DR experienced at least one variation in visual perception (p = 0.053). Among DR, the less reading delay they had, the higher their index of lability (p = 0.026), whereas there was no significant correlation among NR. Changes in the Maddox Test were more frequent in DR than in NR after the addition of sensory and postural stimuli, except for one specific posture. For sensory stimuli, the mean lability index was 1.35 in NR and 4.19 in DR, (p = 0.001). For postural stimuli, it was 0.71 and 2.61, (p = 0.003).


It is possible to modify visual perception by changing sensory or mechanical stimuli. Changes are more frequent in DR than in NR. Postural control can be improved with guided oral stimulations.


These results reinforce the importance of professional cooperation in the care of dyslexic readers.


Dental occlusion; Dyslexia; Eye balance; Oral sensory innervation; Postural control; Vertical heterophoria

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