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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Apr 16;73(14):1846-1860. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.02.018.

Type 2 Myocardial Infarction: JACC Review Topic of the Week.

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Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:
Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:


Acute myocardial infarction (MI) can occur from increased myocardial oxygen demand and/or reduced supply in the absence of acute atherothrombotic plaque disruption; a condition called type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI). As with any MI subtype, there must be clinical evidence of myocardial ischemia to make the diagnosis. This condition is increasingly diagnosed due to the increasing sensitivity of cardiac troponin assays and is associated with adverse short-term and long-term prognoses. Limited data exist defining optimal management strategies because T2MI is a heterogeneous entity with varying etiologies and triggers. Thus, these patients require individualized care. A major barrier is the absence of a uniform definition that can be operationalized with high reproducibility. This document provides a synthesis of the data about T2MI to assist clinicians' understanding of its pathobiology, when to deploy the diagnosis, and its associated treatments. It also clarifies prognosis, identifies gaps in knowledge, and provides recommendations for moving forward.


Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction; acute myocardial infarction; cardiac troponin; myocardial injury; type 2 myocardial infarction


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