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J Immunol Sci. 2019;3(1):4-8. doi: 10.29245/2578-3009/2019/1.1165. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

A Review of Exosomes and their Role in The Tumor Microenvironment and Host-Tumor "Macroenvironment".

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Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, USA.


Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) are important intercellular messengers that contribute to tumorigenesis and metastasis through a variety of mechanisms such as immunosuppression and metabolic reprogramming that generate a pre-metastatic niche favorable to tumor progression. Our lab has contributed further to the understanding of the miRNA payloads in TEX by demonstrating that human melanoma-derived exosome (HMEX) associated miRNAs contribute to the metabolic reprogramming of normal stroma. This mini-review highlights the role of TEX in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and the hypothesis that exosomes may also generate a host-tumor "macroenvironment" beyond the TME through their miRNA and protein payloads, so to speak "fertilizing the soil for cancer seeding."


Exosomes; Fibroblasts; Immunosuppression; Metabolic reprogramming; Tumor macroenvironment; Tumor microenvironment; miRNA

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