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J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2019 Apr 5;23(4):411-421. doi: 10.3171/2018.12.PEDS18350.

Recent advances in the neurosurgical treatment of pediatric epilepsy: JNSPG 75th Anniversary Invited Review Article

Abstract

The field of epilepsy surgery has seen tremendous growth in recent years. Innovative new devices have driven much of this growth, but some has been driven by revisions of existing products. Devices have also helped to rejuvenate existing procedures, as in the case of robotic assistance for electrode placement for stereo-electroencephalography, and these devices have brought significant attention along with their introduction. Other devices, such as responsive neurostimulators or laser interstitial thermal therapy systems, have introduced novel treatment modalities and broadened the surgical indications. Collectively, these advances are rapidly changing much of the landscape in the world of pediatric neurosurgery for medically refractory epilepsy. The foundations for indications for neurosurgical intervention are well supported in strong research data, which has also been expanded in recent years. In this article, the authors review advances in the neurosurgical treatment of pediatric epilepsy, beginning with trials that have repeatedly demonstrated the value of neurosurgical procedures for medically refractory epilepsy and following with several recent advances that are largely focused on less-invasive intervention. ABBREVIATIONS AED = antiepileptic drug; ANT = anterior nucleus of the thalamus; BOLD = blood oxygen level dependent; CCEP = cortico-cortical evoked potential; DBS = deep brain stimulation; ECoG = electrocorticography; ERSET = Early Randomized Surgical Epilepsy Trial; FCD = focal cortical dysplasia; HH = hypothalamic hamartoma; LITT = laser interstitial thermal therapy; RCT = randomized controlled trial; r-fMRI = resting-state functional MRI; RNS = responsive neurostimulation; SEEG = stereo-electroencephalography; VNS = vagus nerve stimulation.

KEYWORDS:

pediatric; epilepsy; epilepsy surgery; review

PMID:
30970205
DOI:
10.3171/2018.12.PEDS18350
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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