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J Med Signals Sens. 2019 Jan-Mar;9(1):33-41. doi: 10.4103/jmss.JMSS_34_18.

Poly (Methyl Methacrylate)/Biphasic Calcium Phosphate/Nano Graphene Bone Cement for Orthopedic Application.

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Department of Tissue Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.



The aim of this study was to make a bioactive bone cement based on poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with suitable mechanical properties.


PMMA has been modified by fabricating a composite consisting of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) 68 wt%, PMMA 31 wt% and graphene (Gr) 1 wt% (PMMA/BCP/Gr), 32 wt% of PMMA, and 68 wt% of BCP (PMMA/BCP) and pure PMMA by milling, mixing with monomer liquid, and casting. The modified cements were evaluated regarding mechanical properties, bioactivity, degradation rate, and biocompatibility.


The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on samples surface after 28 days of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) demonstrated that bioactivity was obtained due to the addition of BCP, and the degradation rate of the cement was enhanced as well. Investigations of mechanical properties revealed that BCP increased the elastic modulus of PMMA more than 1.5 times, but predictably decreased elongation. The addition of 1 wt% Gr increased elongation and yield strength from 16.39% ± 1.02% and 61.67 ± 1.52 Mpa for PMMA/BCP to 35.18% ± 2.42% and 78.40 ± 2.06 Mpa for PMMA/BCP/Gr, respectively. MG63 cells survival and proliferation improved from 127.55% ± 7.03% for PMMA to 201.41% ± 10.7% for PMMA/BCP/Gr on Day 4 of culture.


According to the obtained results of mechanical and biological tests, it seems that new PMMA/BCP/Gr bone cement has a potentiality for usage in orthopedic applications.


Bioactivity; biphasic calcium phosphate; bone cement; graphene; poly (methyl methacrylate)

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