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PLoS One. 2019 Apr 9;14(4):e0214998. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214998. eCollection 2019.

Characterizing emotional Stroop interference in posttraumatic stress disorder, major depression and anxiety disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Medical School, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
2
Centre intégré universitaire en santé et services sociaux de la Capitale-Nationale, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
3
Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht Brain Imaging Center, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Posttraumatic stress disorder is a debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by symptoms of intrusive re-experiencing of trauma, avoidance and hyper-arousal. Diagnosis and treatment of PTSD is further complicated by concurrently occurring disorders, the most frequent being major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Previous research highlights that attentional processing in posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with substantial interference by emotional stimuli, a phenomenon also observed in these concurrently occurring psychiatric disorders. However, the diagnosis-relevance of this interference remains elusive. Here, we investigated the emotional Stroop interference for diagnosis-related stimuli, generally negative stimuli, and generally positive stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

METHODS:

We performed a systematic database search in PubMed (Medline), Cochrane Library and PsycINFO on emotional Stroop performance in individuals with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders separately. Mean effect sizes, standard errors and confidence intervals were estimated for each clinical group and healthy control group comparison using random effect models.

RESULTS:

As compared to healthy control group, the posttraumatic stress disorder group displayed greater interference by diagnosis-related stimuli and positive stimuli but not for generally negative stimuli. The major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders groups showed greater interference by diagnosis-related and negative stimuli, but not by positive stimuli. The age and sex had no significant impact on interference.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings highlight the importance of diagnosis-relevant information on attentional processing in all three clinical populations, posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Further, the impact of generally negative stimuli but not generally positive stimuli in major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders indicate impaired attentional bias for mood-congruent stimuli but not for general stimuli. Finally, it remains to be studied whether the influence of generally positive stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder indicate that positive stimuli are perceived as PTSD related.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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