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Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2019 Apr 8. pii: rapm-2018-100276. doi: 10.1136/rapm-2018-100276. [Epub ahead of print]

Prognostic value of hypersensitivity reactions on epidural steroid injection outcomes: a phenotypic signature? A prospective cohort study.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine Division, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA scohen40@jhmi.edu.
2
Department of Anesthesiology, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
3
Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine Division, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
4
Pain Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington, USA.
5
Department of Anesthesiology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
6
Anesthesia Service, Dept of Anesthesiology, Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Landstuhl, Germany.
7
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
8
Department of Anesthesiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Studies have found that diffuse pain, indicative of central sensitization, portends poor interventional outcomes. Multiple chemical sensitivities are associated with signs of central sensitization. We sought to prospectively determine whether hypersensitivity reactions (HR) were associated with epidural steroid injection (ESI) outcomes.

METHODS:

HR were classified as immune-related or non-immune-related and categorized by number (0=low, 1 or 2=intermediate, ≥3=high). The primary outcome measure was mean reduction in average leg pain score 1 month post-procedure. A positive outcome was defined as a two-point or greater decrease in average leg pain accompanied by satisfaction 1 month post-procedure.

RESULTS:

The mean number of immune-mediated and non-immune-mediated HR were 0.6±1.2 and 0.8±1.4, respectively. Individuals in the high (n=24) total HR group had a mean reduction in average leg pain of 0.1±2.7, compared with those in the low (n=61; 1.8±2.1, p=0.025) and intermediate groups (n=52; 1.6±3.1, p=0.060). For back pain and categorical successful outcome, those with fewer HR experienced greater benefit. There were no differences in outcomes when patients were stratified by immune-related HR. Among participants in the low, intermediate and high non-immune-mediated HR groups, the mean reductions in average leg pain scores were 1.7±2.5, 1.6±3.0, and -0.2±2.3, respectively (p = 0.002). 51%, 35%, and 12% of people with low, intermediate and high numbers of non-immune-mediated HR experienced a positive categorical outcome, respectively (p=0.007).

CONCLUSIONS:

Non-immune-related HR were inversely correlated with some ESI outcome measures.

KEYWORDS:

chronic pain: back pain; chronic pain: central pain syndromes, fibromyalgia; interventional pain management; neuraxial blocks: epidural; spinal/epidural injection

PMID:
30962251
DOI:
10.1136/rapm-2018-100276

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: SPC serves as a consultant to Semnur Pharmaceuticals, which is developing a steroid approved by the US FDA for epidural administration.

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