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Respir Med. 2019 Apr;150:126-130. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2019.03.004. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Outcomes of lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension and impact of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance.

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Duke University Medical Center, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.
Best Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Duke University Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.
Duke University Medical Center, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:



The clinical characteristics, hemodynamic changes and outcomes of lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension (LD-PH) are poorly defined.


A prospective cohort of PH patients undergoing initial hemodynamic assessment was collected, from which 51 patients with LD-PH were identified. Baseline characteristics and long-term survival were compared with 83 patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH).


Mean age (±standard deviation) of LD-PH patients was 64 ± 10 years, 30% were female and 78% were New York Heart Association class III-IV. The LD-PH group was older than the iPAH group (64 ± 10 vs 56 ± 18 years, respectively, P = 0.003) with a lower percentage of women (30% vs 70%, P = 0.007). LD-PH patients had smaller right ventricular sizes (P = 0.02) and less tricuspid regurgitation (P = 0.03) by echocardiogram, and lower mean pulmonary arterial pressures (mPAP) (P = 0.01) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (P = 0.001) at catheterization. Despite these findings, mortality was equally high in both groups (P = 0.16). 5-year survival was lower in patients with interstitial lung disease compared to those with obstructive pulmonary disease (P = 0.05). Among the LD-PH population, those with mild to moderately elevated mPAP and those with PVR <7 Wood units demonstrated significantly improved survival (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001, respectively). Vasoreactivity was not associated with improved survival (P = 0.64). A PVR ≥7 Wood units was associated with increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), 3.59 (1.27-10.19), P = 0.02).


Despite less severe PH and less right heart sequelae, LD-PH has an equally poor clinical outcome when compared to iPAH. A PVR ≥7 Wood units in LD-PH patients was associated with 3-fold higher mortality.


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