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Curr Drug Targets. 2019;20(12):1264-1280. doi: 10.2174/1389450120666190405172524.

Toll-like Receptor as a Molecular Link between Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation: A Review.

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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) involves a cluster of five conditions, i.e. obesity, hyperglycaemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and low High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. All components of MetS share an underlying chronic inflammatory aetiology, manifested by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The pathogenic role of inflammation in the development of MetS suggested that toll-like receptor (TLR) activation may trigger MetS. This review summarises the supporting evidence on the interactions between MetS and TLR activation, bridged by the elevation of TLR ligands during MetS. The regulatory circuits mediated by TLR activation, which modulates signal propagation, leading to the state of chronic inflammation, are also discussed. Taken together, TLR activation could be the molecular basis in the development of MetS-induced inflammation.


Cytokine; free fatty acids; heat shock protein; interferon; interleukin; tumour necrosis factor.

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