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Am J Kidney Dis. 2019 Apr 5. pii: S0272-6386(19)30135-0. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.01.028. [Epub ahead of print]

The Association of Angiogenesis Markers With Acute Kidney Injury and Mortality After Cardiac Surgery.

Author information

1
Program of Applied Translational Research, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Section of Nephrology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
2
Program of Applied Translational Research, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Kidney Health Research Collaborative and Division of General Internal Medicine, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA.
3
Division of Nephrology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.
4
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
5
Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, London, Ontario, Canada.
6
Section of Nephrology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
7
Section of Nephrology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.
8
Kidney Health Research Collaborative and Division of General Internal Medicine, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA.
9
Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
10
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address: chirag.parikh@jhmi.edu.

Abstract

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE:

The process of angiogenesis after kidney injury may determine recovery and long-term outcomes. We evaluated the association of angiogenesis markers with acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality after cardiac surgery.

STUDY DESIGN:

Prospective cohort.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

1,444 adults undergoing cardiac surgery in the TRIBE-AKI (Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints for Acute Kidney Injury) cohort.

EXPOSURES:

Plasma concentrations of 2 proangiogenic markers (vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGF] and placental growth factor [PGF]) and 1 antiangiogenic marker (soluble VEGF receptor 1 [VEGFR1]), measured pre- and postoperatively within 6 hours after surgery.

OUTCOMES:

AKI, long AKI duration (≥7 days), and 1-year all-cause mortality.

ANALYTICAL APPROACH:

Multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS:

Following cardiac surgery, plasma VEGF concentrations decreased 2-fold, and PGF and VEGFR1 concentrations increased 1.5- and 8-fold, respectively. There were no meaningful associations of preoperative concentrations of angiogenic markers with outcomes of AKI and mortality. Higher postoperative VEGF and PGF concentrations were independently associated with lower odds of AKI (adjusted ORs of 0.89 [95% CI, 0.82-0.98] and 0.69 [95% CI, 0.55-0.87], respectively), long AKI duration (0.65 [95% CI, 0.49-0.87] and 0.48 [95% CI, 0.28-0.82], respectively), and mortality (0.74 [95% CI, 0.62-0.89] and 0.46 [95% CI, 0.31-0.68], respectively). In contrast, higher postoperative VEGFR1 concentrations were independently associated with higher odds of AKI (1.56; 95% CI, 1.31-1.87), long AKI duration (1.75; 95% CI, 1.09-2.82), and mortality (2.28; 95% CI, 1.61-3.22).

LIMITATIONS:

Angiogenesis markers were not measured after hospital discharge, so we were unable to determine long-term trajectories of angiogenesis marker levels during recovery and follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS:

Higher levels of postoperative proangiogenic markers, VEGF and PGF, were associated with lower AKI and mortality risk, whereas higher postoperative antiangiogenic VEGFR1 levels were associated with higher risk for AKI and mortality.

KEYWORDS:

AKI duration; Acute kidney injury (AKI); VEGF-A; angiogenesis; angiogenic growth factor; biomarker; cardiac surgery; cytokine; mortality; placental growth factor (PGF); soluble VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1); vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF)

PMID:
30955944
DOI:
10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.01.028

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