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Mol Cancer. 2019 Apr 6;18(1):83. doi: 10.1186/s12943-019-0985-3.

The role of extracellular vesicles from different origin in the microenvironment of head and neck cancers.

Author information

1
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Xiangya Stomalogical Hospital & School of Stomatology, Central South University, Changsha, 410078, Hunan, China.
2
State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit of Oral Carcinogenesis and Management & West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.
3
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Xiangya Stomalogical Hospital & School of Stomatology, Central South University, Changsha, 410078, Hunan, China. tangzhangui@aliyun.com.
4
State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit of Oral Carcinogenesis and Management & West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China. lijing19840108@126.com.

Abstract

The proliferation and metastasis ability of tumors are mediate by the "mutual dialogue" between cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Extracellular vesicles (EVs), mainly exosomes and microvesicles, play an important role in achieving intercellular substance transport and information transfer in the TME. Initially considered "garbage dumpsters" and later referred to as "signal boxes", EVs carry "cargo" (proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids) that can redirect the function of a recipient cell. Currently, the molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of EVs in head and neck cancers (HNCs) are still at an early stage and need to be further investigate. In this review, we provide insight into the TME of HNCs, classifying and summarizing EVs derived from different cell types and illuminating their complex signaling networks involved in mediating tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, vascular angiogenesis and cancer drug resistance. In addition, we highlight the application of EVs in HNCs, underlining the special pathological and physiological environment of HNCs. The application of tumor heterogeneous EVs in saliva and circulating blood diagnostics will provide a new perspective for the early screening, real-time monitoring and prognostic risk assessment of HNCs. Given the concept of precise and individual therapy, nanostructured EVs are equipped with superior characteristics of biocompatibility, low immunogenicity, loadability and modification ability, making these molecules one of the new strategies for HNCs treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Cell-to-cell communication; Exosomes Microvesicles; Extracellular vesicles; Head and neck cancers; Tumor microenvironment

PMID:
30954079
PMCID:
PMC6451295
DOI:
10.1186/s12943-019-0985-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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