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Acta Biomater. 2019 May;90:192-204. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2019.04.010. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Immune tolerance of tissue-engineered skin produced with allogeneic or xenogeneic fibroblasts and syngeneic keratinocytes grafted on mice.

Author information

1
Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec - Université Laval, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval and Centre de recherche en organogénèse expérimentale de l'Université Laval/LOEX, Canada.
2
Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Canada.
3
Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec - Université Laval, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval and Centre de recherche en organogénèse expérimentale de l'Université Laval/LOEX, Canada. Electronic address: lucie.germain@fmed.ulaval.ca.

Abstract

Organs are needed for the long-term replacement of diseased or wounded tissues. Various technologies based on cells seeded in synthetic or biomaterial scaffolds, or scaffold-free methods have been developed in order to produce substitutes that mimic native organs and tissues. For cell-based approaches, the use of living allogeneic fibroblasts could potentially lead to the production of "off-the-shelf" bioengineered organs/tissues. However, questions remain regarding the outcome of allogeneic grafts in terms of persistence of allogeneic cells, tolerance and the host immune reaction against the tissue after implantation. To evaluate graft tolerance of engineered-tissues containing non-autologous fibroblasts, tissue-engineered skin substitutes (TESs) produced with syngeneic, allogeneic or xenogeneic fibroblasts associated with syngeneic, allogeneic or xenogeneic epithelial cells were grafted in mice as primary and secondary grafts. The immune response was evaluated by histological analysis and immunodetection of M2 macrophages, CD4- and CD8-positive T cells, 15, 19, 35 and 56 days after grafting. Tissue-engineered skin composed of non-autologous epithelial cells were rejected. In contrast, TESs composed of non-autologous fibroblasts underlying syngeneic epithelial cells were still present 56 days after grafting. This work shows that TES composed of non-autologous fibroblasts and autologous epithelial cells are not rejected after grafting. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: We found that tissue-engineered skin substitutes produced by a scaffold-free cell-based approach from allogeneic fibroblasts and autologous epithelial cells are not rejected after grafting and allow for the permanent coverage of a full-thickness skin wounds. In the field of tissue engineering, these findings open the possibility of selecting a human fibroblastic or stromal cell population based on its biological properties and adequate biosafety, banking it, in order to produce "ready-to-use" bioengineered organs/tissues that could be grafted to any patient without eliciting immune reaction after grafting. Our results can be generalized to any organs produced from fibroblasts. Thus, it is a great step with multiple applications in tissue engineering and transplantation.

KEYWORDS:

Artificial skin; Autologous transplantation; Graft rejection; Homologous transplantation; Tissue engineering; Transplantation tolerance

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