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Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2019 Jun;264:28-32. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2019.04.001. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Inspiratory muscle training improves pulmonary functions and respiratory muscle strength in healthy male smokers.

Author information

1
Sport Science Faculty, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Ondokuz Mayıs University Performance Laboratory, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Yaşar Doğu Sport Science Faculty, 55100, Samsun, Turkey. Electronic address: bostanci@omu.edu.tr.
2
Sport Science Faculty, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Ondokuz Mayıs University Performance Laboratory, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Yaşar Doğu Sport Science Faculty, 55100, Samsun, Turkey. Electronic address: hakan_mayda@hotmail.com.
3
Graduate School of Health Sciences, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Ondokuz Mayıs University Performance Laboratory, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Yaşar Doğu Sport Science Faculty, 55100, Samsun, Turkey. Electronic address: csknylmz@windowslive.com.
4
Sport Science Faculty, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Ondokuz Mayıs University Performance Laboratory, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Yaşar Doğu Sport Science Faculty, 55100, Samsun, Turkey. Electronic address: kabadayi@omu.edu.tr.
5
Graduate School of Health Sciences, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Ondokuz Mayıs University Performance Laboratory, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Yaşar Doğu Sport Science Faculty, 55100, Samsun, Turkey. Electronic address: alkrm_ylmz@hotmail.com.
6
Physical Education and Sport, Institution: Gaziantep University, Laboratory: Gaziantep University Performance Laboratory, Gaziantep University, Physical Education and Sport Dept., 27310, Gaziantep, Turkey. Electronic address: mustafaozdal@gantep.edu.tr.

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength of both healthy smokers and nonsmokers. Forty-two healthy males (16 in the IMT smokers group [IMTS], 16 in the IMT nonsmokers group [IMTN], and 10 in the placebo group) participated in the present study. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, IMTS and IMTN underwent 4 weeks of 30 breaths twice daily at 50% (+5% increase each week) of maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), while the placebo group maintained 30 breaths twice daily at 15% MIP using an IMT device. The data were analyzed with repeated measures for one-way analysis of variance, 3 × 2 mixed factor analysis of variance, and least significant difference tests. Respiratory muscle strength (MIP and maximal expiratory pressure [MEP]) and pulmonary functions significantly improved after a 4-week period (between the pre and posttests) in the IMTN and IMTS groups (p < 0.05). The mean difference and percentage differences showed significant alterations in the respiratory muscle strength, forced and slow pulmonary capacities, and pulmonary volume between the IMTN and IMTS groups (p < 0.05). There were significant changes in the expiratory muscle strength (MEP), slow vital capacity (SVC), and forced pulmonary measurements (forced expiratory volume after 1 s and maximal voluntary ventilation) between IMTN and IMTS groups in favor of smokers (p < 0.05). These results show that greater improvements occurred in smokers after IMT. Increased respiratory muscle strength may be the underlying mechanism responsible for this improvement. Additionally, the benefits of IMT were greater in smokers than nonsmokers. This difference between smokers and nonsmokers may potentially be explained by higher influence of exercise on smokers' lung microbiome, resulting in greater reversal of negative effects.

KEYWORDS:

Exercise; Lung function; Spirometry

PMID:
30953791
DOI:
10.1016/j.resp.2019.04.001

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