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J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2019 Mar 25;62(3):602-610. doi: 10.1044/2018_JSLHR-S-18-0179.

A Tutorial of the Effects of Sex Hormones on Laryngeal Senescence and Neuromuscular Response to Exercise.

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Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, New York University, New York.
Department of Communication Disorders, Auburn University, AL.
New York University Voice Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York.


Purpose The purpose of this tutorial is to summarize how sex hormones affect both laryngeal senescence and neuromuscular response to exercise, highlighting the importance of considering sex differences in developing treatment for the senescent voice. Conclusion Men and women's voices are sexually dimorphic throughout the life span, including during the laryngeal adaptations observed during senescence. Therefore, presbyphonia (age-related dysphonia) likely clinically manifests differently for men and women due to differences in how the male and the female larynx change in response to aging. Because sexual dimorphism is evident in both laryngeal aging and response to exercise, voice therapy programs aimed at treating the typical and disordered aged voice should consider sex differences in their design.

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