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Med Gas Res. 2019 Jan-Mar;9(1):24-45. doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.254639.

Neurointegrity and neurophysiology: astrocyte, glutamate, and carbon monoxide interactions.

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Division of Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery in the Department of Surgery, St. Christopher's Hospital for Children/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.


Astrocyte contributions to brain function and prevention of neuropathologies are as extensive as that of neurons. Astroglial regulation of glutamate, a primary neurotransmitter, is through uptake, release through vesicular and non-vesicular pathways, and catabolism to intermediates. Homeostasis by astrocytes is considered to be of primary importance in determining normal central nervous system health and central nervous system physiology - glutamate is central to dynamic physiologic changes and central nervous system stability. Gasotransmitters may affect diverse glutamate interactions positively or negatively. The effect of carbon monoxide, an intrinsic central nervous system gasotransmitter, in the complex astrocyte homeostasis of glutamate may offer insights to normal brain development, protection, and its use as a neuromodulator and neurotherapeutic. In this article, we will review the effects of carbon monoxide on astrocyte homeostasis of glutamate.


GABA; astrocyte control of glutamate metabolism; astrocytes; carbon monoxide; gasotransmitters; glutamate metabolism in the brain; neuroprotection; neuroprotection by carbon monoxide; neurotherapy

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