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Med Gas Res. 2019 Jan-Mar;9(1):18-23. doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.254638.

Ultrasonography for oxygen-ozone therapy in musculoskeletal diseases.

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Unit of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sant'Andrea Hospital, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.


Over the years, infiltrative oxygen-ozone therapy has shown clinical benefits in several musculoskeletal disorders, due to its potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effect. Ultrasonography is a safe, non-invasive imaging, easily available, and has the additional advantage of being real time for imaging and image-guided procedures of the musculoskeletal system. This review explains the numerous promising ways in which ultrasonography can be useful in oxygen-ozone therapeutic practices for musculoskeletal disorders, in order to improve safety and accuracy of treatment.


intraaticular ozone; musculoskeletal diseases; oxygen-ozone therapy; ozone; paravertebral injection; peritendinous zone; ultrasonography; ultrasound

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