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Neurotox Res. 2019 Jul;36(1):12-26. doi: 10.1007/s12640-019-00030-0. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Effects of Curcumin on Microglial Cells.

Author information

1
Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran.
2
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.
3
Departamento de Nutrición y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, DC, Colombia.
4
Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
5
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
6
Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. sahebkara@mums.ac.ir.
7
Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. sahebkara@mums.ac.ir.
8
School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. sahebkara@mums.ac.ir.
9
Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 91779-48564, Mashhad, Iran. sahebkara@mums.ac.ir.

Abstract

Microglia are innate immune system cells which reside in the central nervous system (CNS). Resting microglia regulate the homeostasis of the CNS via phagocytic activity to clear pathogens and cell debris. Sometimes, however, to protect neurons and fight invading pathogens, resting microglia transform to an activated-form, producing inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, iNOS/NO and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Excessive inflammation, however, leads to damaged neurons and neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Curcumin is a phytochemical isolated from Curcuma longa. It is widely used in Asia and has many therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-mutagenic, anti-amyloidogenic and anti-inflammatory, especially with respect to neuroinflammation and neurological disorders (NDs). Curcumin is a pleiotropic molecule that inhibits microglia transformation, inflammatory mediators and subsequent NDs. In this mini-review, we discuss the effects of curcumin on microglia and explore the underlying mechanisms.

KEYWORDS:

Curcumin; Microglia, neuroinflammation; Neurodegenerative diseases; Neuroprotection

PMID:
30949950
DOI:
10.1007/s12640-019-00030-0

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